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La Real exceeds 35,000 members

first_imgThe moment so exciting that the realistic team is going through, fighting for the Champions League and at the gates of being able to play their first Cup final in 32 years, has surely influenced this inflation of the number of members. This same Thursday the barrier of 35,000 members and partners in the realistic family has been overcome, placing the exact number at 35,004. This means that with this number of subscribers, 92.25% of the capacity of the new Real field is completed, According to the data that the realistic club forms, and without the visiting area, which cannot be sold among them members and must be available for the club that visits San Sebastián.The reality is that the climate that has been generated in the Reale Arena has also had its influence on the increase in subscribers. Because the atmosphere now in the Real’s house has nothing to do with the athletic tracks. The stands now roar, cheer, squeeze and, above all, enjoy the games. And then if Real helps with victories, everything goes better, of course. It is no coincidence that the percentage of victories at home of the Real has doubled in recent games compared to other seasons. Then there is another factor that cannot be ignored, the possibility that the Real can qualify for the final of the Copa del Rey, because the club in that case would draw a ticket for that final among its subscribers, and nobody wants to stay out of that raffle and the possibility of being able to travel to Seville on April 18. The data of members of the Real Sociedad begin to scare. A few years ago it was unthinkable that 30,000 members could be reached in a club like the San Sebastian. In fact, The number of 25,000 subscribers was seen as a success. But those times were left behind with the remodeling of the Anoeta stadium and the 40,000 seats that Reale Arena now has. Because the forecasts handled by the president of the Royal, Jokin Aoerribay, have even been exceeded. The area businessman always argued that the expansion of the stadium capacity would be accompanied by a considerable increase in the number of partners, taking into account the waiting list they were handling and that the worst visibility areas of the previous Anoeta were usually empty. The improvement of the experience of seeing the Real in the Reale Arena has been noticed, and the fans have responded as expected in the club. To the point of overcoming the barrier of 35,000 members, a surprising figure and with which the stadium would be filled before the reform. Moreover, there would be someone who would have to stay out, because it had capacity for 32,000 spectators.last_img read more

RNA world inches closer to explaining origins of life

first_imgThe molecular dance that led to the origin of life billions of years ago remains one of the deepest mysteries in modern science. Though the exact choreography is forever lost to time, scientists now say they may have identified one of the key steps. Chemists in Germany today report a plausible way in which basic chemicals available on early Earth may have given rise to compounds called purines—chemicals that are a key ingredient of DNA, RNA, and energy metabolism in all cells.The new work is “very pretty chemistry,” says Gerald Joyce, a chemist at the Scripps Research Institute in San Diego, California, who specializes in the chemistry that may have given rise to life.Joyce and others have long suggested that one of the key early events in this process was the formation of RNA—a long chainlike molecule that conveys genetic information and speeds up other chemical reactions. Both of those functions were necessary for life to evolve. But sorting out how RNA itself may have arisen—and led to an “RNA world”—has been a struggle. 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Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Emailcenter_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country RNA is made up of four different chemical building blocks: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and uracil (U). Seven years ago, researchers led by the U.K. chemist John Sutherland showed a plausible series of steps by which chemical reactions on early Earth could have synthesized cytosine and uracil, also known as pyrimidines. But this route hasn’t been shown to give rise to adenine or guanine, RNA’s purine building blocks. Others partially succeeded in the purine quest. In 1972, the U.K. chemist Leslie Orgel and colleagues suggested one possible route for purine formation on early Earth. But it never seemed all that plausible, says Thomas Carell, a chemist at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich in Germany. That’s in part because the process produced only tiny amounts of the purines so vital for life.“People have been looking for synthetic routes to making purines for 40 years,” Carell says.Carell and colleagues stumbled on a new lead several years ago, when they were studying how DNA is damaged. DNA is very similar to RNA, except that uracil is replaced with thymine. They were studying how a molecule called formamidopyrimidine (FaPy) reacts with DNA, and found it also readily reacts to form purines. So they decided to look into whether early Earth conditions could have given rise to FaPys, and thus purines.The first step was easy. It requires only hydrogen, cyanide, and water. Hydrogen cyanide, a simple molecule containing only three atoms—hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon—is widely believed to have been abundant on early Earth. It readily reacts in water—also thought to be plentiful at the time—to form one of a class of molecules called aminopyrimidines, which contain several chemical groups called amines. Normally, these amines react indiscriminately to form a wide mix of different compounds. That’s a bad thing in this case, Carell explains, because most of those products wouldn’t be purines.Carell needed to find a way to stop all but one critical amine from reacting. “Initially I thought this would never work,” Carell says. But the solution, he says, was far simpler than he expected. When Carell’s team spiked their solution with just a bit of an acid—also widely considered abundant on early Earth—a reaction caused an extra proton from the acid to attach to the aminopyrimidine. That extra proton killed the reactivity of all but one of the amine groups on the molecule. And much to Carell’s delight, the lone amine that stayed reactive was precisely the one that reacts to form a purine.That’s not all. Further lab results presented today in Science show that the reactive amine on the aminopyrimidine readily bonds with either formic acid or formamide. Last year, the Rosetta space probe detected both of those chemicals on a comet, so scientists think they also probably rained down on early Earth. Once the bonds have formed, products of those reactions then eagerly react with sugars to create large quantities of purines. “It’s like a domino cascade,” Carell says.Mic drop? Not so fast, says Steven Benner, a chemist and origin of life expert at the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution in Alachua, Florida. Benner agrees that the newly suggested purine synthesis is a “major step forward” for the field. But even if it’s correct, he says, the chemical conditions that gave rise to the purines still don’t match those that Sutherland’s group suggests may have led to the pyrimidines. So just how As, Gs, Cs, and Us would have ended up together isn’t yet clear. And even if all the RNA bases were in the same place at the same time, it’s still not obvious what drove the bases to link up to form full-fledged RNAs, Benner says.We’re here, so it must have happened somehow. But RNA-world researchers still need to line up a few more dominoes before one of the greatest mysteries of life will be truly solved.last_img read more